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Trends and transition: a drugs scene in flux? - Martin Barnes, DrugScope

There are some who say that drug use in this country has ‘spiralled out of control’. Others suggest that the UK drug scene may be in a period of transition, rather than terminal decline. In this article, DrugScope Chief Executive, Martin Barnes reflects on the recent trends in drug use, addiction and treatment.

Trends and transition: a drugs scene in flux? - Martin Barnes, DrugScope

The media and those who have their own drug policy agendas will frequently assert that drug use in this country has ‘spiralled out of control’.  However, according to the data measures we have at our disposal, overall use across all age ranges in the UK has actually been falling. This applies to drugs such as cannabis as much as it does to heroin and crack cocaine – among the 16 to 24 age group, cannabis use has nearly halved since its peak in 1998[1].  We have seen a decline in the numbers of both adults and young people presenting to treatment services and an increase in the numbers of planned exits from treatment. And in line with other countries in western Europe, our heroin and crack using population is ageing.  While the obvious question is ‘what’s going on?’, the answer is less straightforward.

In very general terms, at least until 2008, the UK enjoyed a sustained and strong economy; this could help explain some of the decline in drug use.  Contrast the relatively affluent nineties and noughties with the 1980s, and the growth of heroin use against a backdrop of mass unemployment and rising poverty and social exclusion. Again, more generally and in epidemiological terms, drug use can go in cycles. For example, crack use peaked in the USA in the 1980s, and then experienced a downturn without any obvious explanation.

Looking at more ‘recreational’ use across the wider population, drug use might be as much a ‘victim’ of fashion as any other cultural phenomenon and, at the moment, drug use isn’t quite as cool as it was.  It may be that the inexorable rise of social media, and subsequent changes in the way young people socialise and occupy their time, is having an influence on behaviour and attitudes towards drug use.

Where cannabis is concerned, the home grown market in ‘skunk’ now dominates over imported cannabis resin. With forensic evidence demonstrating that most skunk is on average about three times stronger than resin, it might well be too strong, unpredictable and unpleasant for many people. Conversely, the decline in the use of heroin could be linked to a decline in the levels of purity, for reasons which remain unclear. Many young people, perhaps scared by the experience of members of their community, friends or family members, see it as a ‘dirty’ drug.

So overall, the news is encouraging, but there has to be a note of caution. Firstly, we still have around 300,00 people with serious heroin and crack problems – and the drug and alcohol sector will need to adapt to the new public health environment from April 2013, with multiple competing pressures on funding.

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that the UK drug scene may be in a period of transition, rather than terminal decline. The history of drug use in the UK is not a straightforward upward line; there have been ‘tipping points’ prior to each developmental stage, as seen in the late 1980s, for instance, with the arrival of ecstasy and rave culture. Now, we have the internet. There has been talk for some time, in the media and elsewhere, of the impact of the internet on the drug scene; it is clear now that the opportunities presented by the world wide web has driven the manufacture, supply, purchase and information exchange of a bewildering array of so-called ‘legal highs’, while internet pharmacies have put a range of powerful painkillers and sedative drugs within reach of a computer and a credit card. This online activity has seen, for example, the rise of mephedrone and synthetic cannabis in the UK and the increasing use of painkillers and other prescription drugs such as Tramadol among vulnerable groups, a situation highlighted by the Chief Inspector of Prisons in his most recent report.

We are about to enter the biggest change to the treatment and recovery landscape for a decade, at a time of financial uncertainty, while trying to protect the health gains of recent years and gearing up for what might be a very different drug environment in the years to come.  For all professionals involved in the care of those experiencing drug problems, the challenges ahead are far from insignificant.



[1]          According to the British Crime Survey Drug Misuse Declared, 15.7 per cent reported last year use of cannabis in 2011/12; this figure was 28.2 per cent back in 1998.

Comments

Kenneth Eckersley

Illegal drug usage is falling because our youngsters are not stupid. But what about usage of licensed and prescribed addictive substances. That usage is not falling.

They are still being pushed by DrugScope's fellow travelers. And the booze industry is not helping.

If we are in transition, why is Professor Strang trying so hard to ensure that Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) is maintained and "more professionally delivered"?

DEMAND REDUCTION is the government's most vital target and that is achieved ONLY by curing addicts - NOT by diverting their demand to addictive pharmaceutical drugs.

NON-USERS DO NOT DEMAND DRUGS !

Not even methadone.

ADDICTS DO ! And their demand is switched off by curing them of their habit."

Evidence not faith plz

Mr Eckersley - CEO of ARTS is a not-for-profit community support organisation established by a retired UK Magistrate (Mr Eckersley) in 1975 to inform officials and the public about those policies and organisations likely to provide better solutions to national problems. Also active in the Church of Scientology (http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/the-faith-column/2008/02/human-rights-scientologist )
in the drug and alcohol addiction fields.

CR

As Martin said in his report we still have a large number of heroin and crack users with complex needs, so getting OST treatment correct is vital,that is why the Strang report exists. We need to be aware of the anti methadone spin that is going on at present, noone gets the chance to hear from those who are doing well in OST as they are too frigtened to put themselves out there! Drug users have been criminalised and the damage that has been done, times are changing and things are about to get a whole lot worse. The welfare reform/so called 'legal highs' will impact hugely on drug treatment services, and as services have been cut massively it is potentially a time bomb ticking!!

Zaza

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jackie

Having worked in the drugs, alcohol and challenging behaviour world for 12 years now, I believe that the first most important thing is to have the skills to gain total rapport with each client, using a person centred approach. After all, they are the professional in their life. This is a great start to THEIR recovery journey (work with their metaphor). Knowing how that client 'ticks', being able to talk their language, to be challenging, encouraging and motivating. Also is the vital ability to communicate well with all other agencies involved, sharing good practise, sharing information, meeting regularly and respecting the specialist work they do. In previous work, I found that if a client had a main point of contact/support (care co-ordinator) they achieved more, more quickly. To provide continuity of care, where-ever the client may be i.e. community or prison. To believe.

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